Chip Evolution


Staff member
Chip Evolution
- EPROM-Erasable Programmable ROM, used ultra-violet light (sunlight) to erase.
- EEPROM-Electrically Erasable-what we use today.
-Flash ROM-another name for EEPROM.
- NVRAM-Non-volatile RAM. Really not so, still needs battery power.

The Three-In-One
- We have BIOS that stores code and access program to CMOS.
- We have CMOS that stores changeable information about our system
- We have RTC (Real Time Clock) that keeps track of date and time.
All three are now rolled into one chip.

About that Battery
- Should last 5 to 10 yeard.
- You can find them at Savon even.
- If your system forgets date and/or time, it's time to replace the battery.
Beware the evil ESD!

More Battery
- Sometimes we WANT to reset CMOS.
+ A forgotten password
+ Too aggressive overlocking
+ Incorrect low-level settings on some screen
- Either move the jumper, or pull the battery.
- Do either for about 10 seconds
- If you are to pull battery, make sure you unplug system too.

- Option ROM-put a BIOS chip on the card/device
+ Video is most common for this
+ SCSI cards
+ Network cards have socket, chip is extra.

Software Solutions
- Device Drivers-very flexible, but must wait until OS starts loading.
- CONFIG.SYS-DOS utility program, runs before DOS really gets going.
- SYSTEM.INI-Introduced with win 1 to 3, another text file. Win 9x won't boot without it; XP will.
- The Registry-Introduced with Win 95. Binary database of information.

Software Help
- Control Panel-Graphical "window" to the Registry, Device manager-Another graphical path to the Registry, REGISTRY EDITOR (s):